Synergies from physical and traffic planning models for multicriteria optimization of multimodal demand-oriented transports

To meet the Paris climate goals, greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector must be significantly reduced. In addition to new, lower-emission drive types, a mobility transition from motorized individual transport to collective public transport is inevitable. The aim of SynphOnie is to develop a planning method for the integrated multicriteria optimization of multimodal transport systems, including public transport, ridepooling services, and individual transport. For the first time

  • different modes of transport are optimized as an overall system,
  • travel time, energy demand, environmental impact, and costs are considered simultaneously in a multicriteria approach, and
  • passenger behavior is modeled by means of equilibrium conditions across all modes of transportation.

This multi-criteria, multi-modal approach allows to realistically model urban and rural mobility and to design a range of solutions that represent different trade-offs between travel time, energy demand, environmental impact, and cost. To find such solutions, a two-step procedure is considered. First, in a physically-statistically motivated coarse model, representatives of the Pareto front for suitable approximations of the objective functions are determined using multicriteria optimization. In a second step, a traffic offer consisting of stops, lines, timetable, and ridepooling service is designed in a fine model with the help of discrete optimization. Using methods from game theory, a demand equilibrium between the considered modes of transport is determined. The potential of the new planning approach is evaluated in two case studies in metropolitan areas, incorporating actual transportation demand.